the beginning of AI, there has been a great fascination in pitting the human
expert against the computer. Game playing provided a high-visibility platform
for this contest. It is important to note, however, that the performance of
the human expert and the AI game-playing program reflect qualitatively different
processes. More specifically, as mentioned earlier, the performance of the human
expert utilizes a vast amount of domain specific knowledge and procedures. Such
knowledge allows the human expert to generate a few promising moves for each
game situation (irrelevant moves are never considered). In contrast, when selecting
the best move, the game playing program exploits brute-force computational speed
to explore as many alternative moves and consequences as possible. As the computational
speed of modern computers increases, the contest of knowledge vs. speed is tilting
more and more in the computers favour, accounting for recent triumphs like Deep
Blue's win over Gary Kasparov.
for this section have been organised into two groups. In the first are two papers
that discuss game playing in general - describing certain attempts, and certain
techniques common to the area, the next two sites include an updated report
on the advances in the field and a site with many different examples of AI in
games. The second deal specifically with Deep Blue's success, and its implications
both for AI, and for society.
Games, and The Real World (if link fails, click
here for a local copy) - This Scientific American article by Matthew Ginsberg
discusses the current work being done in game-playing AI, such as the now-famous
Deep Blue. While it may seem somewhat frivolous to spend all this effort on
games, one should remember that games present a controlled world in which
a good player must learn to problem solve rapidly, and intelligently.
learning in Game playing - This resource page, assembled by Jay Scott,
contains a large amount of links to issues related to machine game playing.
on games, computers and artificial intelligence - An updated, and easy
to understand summary of the status of game playing and AI.
of Alberta Games Group - This is a very interesting page describing the
various projects with which the UofA Games Group is involved. Notice all the
various games where AI seems to have surpassed human intelligence.
Blue - The official homepage for Deep Blue. Includes a large amount of
information (including game transcripts and video) on the Kasparov vs. Deep
Blue re-match that ended in Deep Blue's favour.
Intelligent is Deep Blue? (if link fails, click
here for a local copy) - Drew McDermott - a university AI lecturer - discusses
the appropriateness of calling Deep Blue 'intelligent'. Does Deep Blue fail
to be intelligent because it uses raw computing power to process 200,000,000
moves before deciding, or is that the essence of intelligence?
does Deep Blue Mean? (if link fails, click
here for a local copy) - This article talks about some of the extreme
reactions to Deep Blue's victory over Kasparov. Does this mean the beginning
of a race of super-intelligent computers that will dominate us in everything?
Is this an empty victory? Tim van Gelder looks at both interpretations.
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